Notes health

Section 3: Nutrition and Diet (Bigger, Leaner, Stronger)


Regardless of the source, 1 gram of protein contains 4 calories, 1 gram of carbohydrate contains 4 calories as well, and 1 gram of fat contains 9 calories.

People often overestimate how many calories they burn each day, so they over-eat

To know how many calories you burn every day, you must get your TDEE (Total Daily Energy Expenditure). Use the Katch McArdle formula first to determine BMR.

BMR (Basal Metabolic Rate) = 370 + (21.6 * LBM)

LBM = Lean Body Mass. It is Kilograms for this calculation.

To calculate it, you subtract your body fat weight from your total body weight.

LBM = (1 – BF% expressed as decimal numeral) * total body weight

When you have calculated your BMR, you can then find your TDEE.

TDEE also depends on how much you exercise vigorously every week. (BMRx1.2 if you exercise 1-3 hours a week, BMRx1.5 if you exercise 4-6 hours a week, BMRx1.5 if you exercise for 6 or more hours a week).


You need to have a high protein diet to build muscle, and to keep it when losing weight. A low protein diet is good for nothing.

You should eat 1.3-1.8 grams of protein for every kg of body weight.

Protein from meat sources is particularly good for weightlifting, as eating meat increases testosterone levels and is more effective at building than vegetarian sources.

It is not impossible to get enough protein from food, but it is difficult. Supplements are required for this reason.


Women should drink three quarters of a gallon per day, while men should drink just over a gallon.

Plastic bottled water has a higher contamination of chemicals than glass bottles.

Best thing is to get filtered water. Avoid tap water.

Vitamins and Minerals

 Your body needs a wide variety of vitamins and minerals to perform the
millions of physiological processes that keep you alive and well.

Ideally, we’d get all of the vitamins and minerals we need from the food
we eat, but this is hard.

The Institute of Medicine recommends 1,500 milligrams of sodium per day
as the adequate intake level for most adults and an upper limit of 2,300
milligrams per day. One teaspoon of table salt contains a whopping 2,300
milligrams of sodium.


Fiber comes in two forms, soluble and insoluble. Soluble fiber dissolves in water and slows down the movement of food through the digestive system. But it can increase fecal output by stimulating growth of healthy bacteria and fatty acids and is an important source of fuel for the colon.

Ex of soluble fiber: broccoli, sweet potatoes, carrots.

Insoluble fiber doesn’t dissolve in water and does increase stool weight. It hits the walls of intestines and causes damage, but this damage and the resulting repair and cellular regeneration are healthy processes.

Ex of insoluble fiber: Brown rice, beans, avocado.

Pre-Workout, Post-Workout

Eating protein before working out, and especially a quickly digested protein high in leucine like whey, can help you build more muscle over time. 30 to 40 grams of protein 30 minutes before training is recommended.

Eating carbohydrate before working out, and especially a quickly digested form, will improve your performance. 40 to 50 grams of carbs 30 minutes before training is recommended.

Eating dietary fat before working out provides no benefits.

The goals of post-workout nutrition are minimizing post-workout muscle breakdown and maximizing protein synthesis. And similar to pre-workout nutrition, you achieve these effects by eating protein and carbohydrate after training.

Better to eat carbs before than after workout.

It’s smart to have some protein before a cardio workout to counteract any
potential muscle loss. Post-workout protein or carbs would only be needed
if the cardio were particularly long and intense (longer than an hour).

Cutting, Bulking, Maintaining

Cutting is “fitness speak” for feeding your body less energy than it burns every day to maximize fat loss while minimizing muscle loss. Generally, you can’t build muscle when you’re cutting.

Bulking refers to feeding your body slightly more energy than it burns every day so as to maximize muscle growth. You also gain body fat while bulking.

Maintaining refers to feeding your body the energy it burns every day, which enables you to make slow muscle gains without the adding any fat.

The only people who can effectively (and naturally) build muscle and lose fat simultaneously are beginner who have a lot of fat, and people who used to be in great shape.


When cutting, you want to lose between 0.5 and 1 pound per week.

If you have a lot of fat, this number goes up to 2 to 3 pounds for the first few weeks.

If your strength drops considerably, you’re probably undereating and need to increase your food intake.


If you’re in the 10-12 percent body fat range and want to put on muscle quickly, you should bulk.

Bulking doesn’t mean eating whatever you want whenever you want. You can have a cheat meal once a week but keep it reasonable.


On average, you’ll gain around 0.5 pounds a week.

"Silence is the best expression of scorn" - G.B. Shaw

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